Our sun is considered to be relatively old compared to other stars. Based on one calculation decades ago, that determines the likelihood of a supernova (where every star or sun will eventually explode, engulfing the whole solar system), the high neutrino production of the sun indicated by one physicist indicates the sun should have exploded already. If it doesn’t work, it’s physics, if it does work, it’s engineering, and better techniques in the future should predict a supernova well in advance, just like studies showing a 30-year-sun-spot-cycle prove other planets are getting warmer, while this planet is getting colder. Nostradamus predicted the world would come to an end in the year A.D. 3997, and he should be taken very seriously because of his many successes. There are believed to be about 50 earth-like planets in the galaxy, by an old estimate, and the closest, based on crude probability statistics, about 5,000 light years away. The Hubble telescope and other extraterrestrial telescope observations now find evidence of more clues about earth-like planets that are likely to be much closer, like Alpha-Centauri, 4.5 light-years away. There will be a need to leave this solar system with a Noah’s Ark mission with space planes in an armada with as many people as possible and the DNA of as many life forms as possible, to travel to these foreign planets. According to the theory of Lorentzian time-dilation (Henrik Antoon Lorentz was the mentor of Albert Einstein) if one can travel just shy of the speed of light, a trip of thousands of light-years will seem like a very short period of time to those in the space ship, but thousands of years as perceived by those back on earth. The galaxies have been expanding relative to one another since the Big Bang (I believe the Big Bang was an an extremely high energy, infinitesimal small mass incident at first, where E = m x c^ 2, energy converts to mass, quite quickly at first, and vice-versa later, back and forth, and the four fields, based on Newton’s second law, F = mass x acceleration, are the same, where acceleration, though different for the four fields in the observable universe, has the mass redefined as particles from wave-particle duality assertions, and matter and anti-matter couplings with attractive and repulsive forces, treated as charge-mass couplings, not exclusively charge versus mass, leads to a unified field provable-theory. The more mundane use for “forces” versus “fields” treats electro-magnetic, nuclear strong and weak forces more based on charge, gravity more based on mass). But Einstein’s inability to solve the unified field theory was mostly the result of inferior instrumentation to test his theories in his day, and rejection of a fifth dimension as negative time travel, where what I call 5-dimensional space-time-parallel universe inertial-anti-inertial reference frames, means gravity, I propose, as a much weaker force, is one and the same with the 3 other forces because of dark mass leading to anti-inertia. Cray super-computer simulations (physicists and computer scientists like me, better yet proteges to me who need to benefit from my “share the wealth” attitude, you do the work. Einstein said, “I leave elegance to the cobbler”) may be used to apply Einstein’s tensor calculus to simulate a Big Bang recreation, with future expectations, mapping out curvilinear space-time-parallel-universe warping, possibly with recursive calls to get the margins of error low, where more energy than mass, acceleration seen more redefined attractive-repulsive couplings, the much weaker gravity “catches up” because of anti-inertia, and hence a solution. Some say the universe will expand indefinitely, with no well established evidence. I say the rate of expansion will decrease under Newton’s law of gravity, and eventually the universe becomes “the Big Collapse”, a massive black hole, but that means dark mass will cause the many smaller black holes to repel one another when too close. So will there be violent damped harmonic oscillation, and the black holes eventually stabilize? Does it mean that the terminal velocity of the initial black holes toward the center of the universe is so great, dark mass is inconsequential, it leads to another Big Bang, where the material of the black holes can be liberated? Possibly with a reduced number of galaxies/solar systems revolving around the giant black hole center indefinitely, possibly with our current essences entering an event horizon and expelled, what I say, is backward in time to repeat the same five-dimensional space-time universe we came from (a suggestion from the Stephen Hawking finding, you can escape the event horizon of a black hole, but he leaves negative versus positive time travel as an open-ended question). This may have been something prematurely understood by Friedrich Nietzsche, who believed we live the same life over and over again, and prophesy may be communication with a past that repeats itself. Most suns will die in a perpetual universe and become dwarfs, black holes, etc., with diminishing hydrogen to create new stars, and the bleak prospect of an expanding darker universe. Exotic matter, where atoms may one day collapse under their nuclear forces and provide new stars, or black hole singularities to possibly exploit event horizon enter-and-exit travel into parallel universes, forward or even backward in time, where the grandfather paradox can be resolved if you travel in a fifth dimension, and may provide hope Man can populate a darker universe with new suns and other possibilities.
Space planes made of high-density ceramic, it’s veins cooled with liquid nitrogen, could be constructed in absence of expensive and life-endangering tiles, with booster rockets and a turbo-prop with air foils, taking off and landing conventionally like normal aircraft. Conventional rocket-propellant, with or without hydrogen-oxygen fuel mixtures needed to obtain the 19,000 miles per hour needed to achieve the escape velocity of the earth, will probably remain standard practice. A space station on the Moon, with dirigible housing for astronauts, and deployments for deep space missions, to capitalize on the very low escape velocity of the Moon, will allow space planes to utilize rocket engines that can propel space craft at much higher speeds. Nuclear rockets, utilizing uranium or plutonium mini-to-macro explosions, would be useful for what are now unknown high speeds, and space is mostly radiation and hydrogen and not exclusively a vacuum, so there is no inter-planetary environmental contamination of any concern.
The most violent reaction in the universe is that between matter and anti-matter, and electrons and positrons are relatively heavy in the sub-atomic world. The equation E = m x c^2 implies a total loss of mass for a high population of electrons and positrons, multiplied by the speed of light squared, meaning insane energy for a space plane. A slow rate of particle production and interaction that leads to much higher velocities, tested with inertia sensors and robots before maximum g-forces tolerable for the human body are understood before allowing human travel, and can lead us in the only known direction to space ships that can travel relativistic speeds (maybe faster than light, even though a recent fluke at CERN in September, 2011, because of the Opera Experiment, where neutrinos were thought to be observed traveling faster than light, although dismissed because of two errors, a fiber optic cable improperly connected, and a clock oscillator ticking too fast). Objects accelerating toward much increasingly higher speeds when entering a black hole/singularity event horizon (therefore an increase in the rate of acceleration, or “jerk”, so force constants “change” giving way to a unified field for all known four forces, like at the Big Bang, the presumed beginning of time) should always increase in rate of acceleration as well, and for no reason significantly decelerate, and must also increase in the rate of deceleration, to a screeching halt just shy of or at c, absurdly counter-intuitive. Einstein’s speed of light limit dictates, based on objects having infinite time dilation, length contraction, and increasing mass, with divide-by-zero values at speed=c and therefore an infinite rate of time advance, infinite weight, and zero length in direction of travel where even light under wave-particle duality considerations has no rest mass but relativistic mass and therefore greater than no-volume size, mass cannot equal or exceed c. It will have imaginary values for something with rest mass when greater than light speeds means divide by the square root of (1 – v^2/c^2), or square root of a negative number, meaning “not real” according to a mathematical fussbudget like Einstein. Though casual, he loved the almost constant tempo of Mozart music, who insisted math and physics must be compliant with each other, much like like when he stated “God did not roll dice when He created the universe”, opposed to the explanation of quantum mechanics with the Heisenberg uncertainty principles. The more sure you are of energy, the less sure you are of time, and vice-versa, the same for momentum and position, when measuring sub-atomic particle behavior. But there are many anomalies and aberrations in physics, like boundary equations in calculus with differential equations together with a different set of constraints. The gravitational force attraction between earth and moon requires algebra, But if the earth is a torus with the moon in the middle, that means an infinite gravitational pull, which is not possible. It is actually zero, as you must go from algebra to calculus, divide the earth into three-dimensional pie slices, where there is an equal tug of slices on moon in all outward directions, so vector forces cancel out, hence total weightlessness.
If it is possible for something to exceed the speed of light, you may go forward in time at a greater rate, or backward, unknown for now. The “grandfather paradox”, which forbids you to go back in time and kill your grandfather, making your initial existence impossible, unless there is a fifth dimension (time is the forth dimension), or a parallel universe, where you can only return to a future with no grandfather, with an understanding of an increasing number of universes in a future with more “where do you turn at the end of a road in one of two directions”, but decreasingly possibilities for creating new universes as you go back in time, approaching the perceived zero-dimensional universe at the Big Bang and the supposed “beginning of time”. So maybe John Titor’s time-machine sled, that might enter a man-made far-from-earth singularity event horizon, can go back and forth in time. Titor actually corrected one of Hawking’s stipulations. Conservation of angular momentum, like when an ice skater spins slowly with her arms fully extended, then spins faster as she brings her arms inward, applies to black holes. Black holes start out as massive stars up to tens or possibly hundreds of millions of miles in radius, much larger than our sun, that spin in a random assortment at different angular speeds, but when nuclear fuel is over-consumed, they explode, then collapse under their own gravity into something so dense the warping of space-time causes extreme inertia (hence “relativistic inertial reference frames”), once thought to cause even light to enter the event horizon to never be able to escape, less than the Schwarzschild radius, but dis-proven by Hawking. But the spin or rate of rotation could be so great tangential velocities at the edges of the surface of the black are relativistic, pulling you inward toward the part of black hole’s equator rotating toward you at a faster rate with a higher relativistic-mass or density, further increasing your attractive speed, attracted toward the other side receding away from you at much lower speed, probably < 0 km/s with increasing mass of that part of the black hole's equator or density, possibly causing a dark mass effect with a repulsive force, and a tremendous sling-shot effect, drawing you that much faster to the part of the black hole's equator moving toward you. (And possibly coupled with a nearby black hole or two micro-singularities for the repulsive force of anti-gravity, causing you to increase in the rate of acceleration toward the opposing side of black hole/singularity event horizon, another addition to the absurdity of the speed-of-light-limit argument (see Kerr Effect for explanation of but addition to “the potential for high back hole spins with tiny-high-man-made-singularities [John Titor] for negative time travel”), hence a draw-in-and-push-out at a much faster speed slingshot effect, like artificial satellites slung in and out of Jupiter’s gravitational field to be catapulted faster into away-from-earth outer space. So the limit of c seems improbable with black hole relativistic spins. A man-made singularity can be created (but not near distant black holes, no need for electron injections into natural black holes for dual micro-singularities) possibly with exotic matter, where neutrons or other sub-atomic particles that collapse under the absence of repulsive forces, attractive with nuclear strong-weak forces, but with the understanding the unified field theory calls for and can yield evidence for wave-particle duality with attractive and repulsive forces. This is more apparent under high inertia, high density mass with space-time disturbances, so faster than light travel is conceivable, with a 50/50 chance of negative time travel. If time dilation calls for forward time travel for near-to-or-at light speeds, infinite rate of advance when at c, intuition says faster then light speed, as it only travels at c for an infinitesimal time interval or instance and therefore no infinite rate, it can go either back or forth in time with a 50% probability for each scenario. Reverse time travel is more intuitive as nature is always and kindly complimentary-then-supplementary, and vice-versa, or equal-and-opposite in nature like everything that is not pure energy travelling at c, especially with time displacements like war yielding peace, chaos yielding order, forward in time faster than one-second-per-second, approaching c, backward in time faster than one-second-per-second when exceeding c. See https://www.anarchyforever.com/politics-business-and-science/science/space-plane/negative-time-travel for a discussion, equations and diagrams, on negative time travel. There are no rigid bodies at non-c speeds, as it takes a small but definite amount of time for momentum transfer when you push a pencil, as their is a delay in the information getting to the end of the pencil. So Newton’s third law, “action-reaction”, means “war is peace” occurs after a short but definite time lapse, and can go back-and-forth forever, unless people and particles commit fewer-to-no “actions”. Much like the origin of imaginary numbers, the square root of negative one, it is used as only a convention in a complex conjugate to solve a problem, finding the roots of polynomials. 3 + 4i, 3- 4i, equal in magnitude (scalar, a number with no direction), but opposite in sign (vector, or a number that is a direction) are such examples. Whereas the product of the two vectors has no imaginary numbers, they must separately be represented with a second dimension, or y, and each polynomial is set equal to a z-vector, one has a value below the y axis. What if you have z as a 5th dimension, and t (time) as the forth, coming from three-dimensional imaginary-number polynomial z-vectors? Does this mean there is a 5th dimension, where there is a 50/50 chance the forth dimension, time, replaces y and will be negative for one of two “z-vector” possibilities to physically visualize it on a 5-dimensional graph? I hope to create an illustration here in the future. You can think of the two-dimensional grid in the illustration below, upper left-corner, as moving into different columns in a row, that is the change in time, and more than one row means the 5th dimension, where neo-physicists correctly say v > c means object may go forward or backward in time. But if it already goes forward in time when just shy of c, negative time, to complete the cycle of a 5-dimensional universe otherwise always equal and opposite, is more aesthetically pleasing. The Alcubierre Drive and Casimir Vacuum, creating exotic matter or speculative “negative energy”, a quantum-mechanical high energy density worm-hole, might one day be the driving force of negative time travel, possibly with two tiny high-spin-rate man-made “neutron star micro-singularities” to rival Titor’s two electrons near a black hole, using Jupiter or the Sun in close proximity for space-time warping and the benefit of the speculative Woodward effect for much higher speeds. A hot plasma spinning gluons and quarks is another alternative.
High electron production is easily achieved with field-emission capacitors of large surface areas, close proximity of voltage-bias plates, and occurring in series in large numbers, and released at timed intervals with valves controlling electron guns, Tesla coils, etc. Positrons are best generated with small cyclotrons, derived from the Wilson Cloud Chamber of the 1880’s, leading to atom smashers, super conducting super colliders, and mechanisms that can use timed-valve-opening to extract positively-charged positrons with their attraction to negatively-charged electrons in timed intervals, repeating itself when rate of acceleration of the space plane slows down, until terminal velocity is achieved. The process can eject energy in the reverse direction with a main body of craft with aperture in front as well as the back, valves sealing off apertures depending on whether flight is in acceleration or deceleration mode, slowing down near the end of journey to engage in orbit, and use rocket propellant or hydrogen-oxygen-burning mini-rockets to steer craft in any direction to enter atmosphere or pseudo-atmosphere of planet and land safely. Mini-rockets allow deceleration to much lower horizontal and vertical speeds, and soft landings on turf not suited for conventional human-built runways. The Mach or Woodward effect, which dictates that inertia, or resistance to acceleration, is the result of all the mass in the universe pushing on you with gravitons, which have rest mass unlike photons (photons are particles, like gravitons, that are the result of electro-magnetic field associations with wave-particle duality, and gravitons have gravity-wave associations too). Photons do have relativistic mass pushing on a hypothetical solar sail, more photon flux with bigger sails, but about the same terminal velocity because of heavier sailing ships slowed down by inertia. Because, according to Woodward, more inertia means more graviton flux, and the gravitons have higher relativistic mass under the right conditions (mostly when space-time-warping from general-relativity (GR) causing graviton flux to be higher, like near a singularity, black hole, the sun, even to a slight degree, the earth), where bigger star ships are not penalized. If inertia, say from circular oscillation (like a hub with armatures with rockets expelling propellant in a merry-go-round, perpendicular to the armatures’ direction in the circular plane to capitalize on moment of inertia pushing you upward, like the Bob Lazar flying saucer, and the Woodward effect combined) is high enough near high GR warping, relativistic speeds could be achieved. Some propellant will be ejected downward as well, required initially for the necessary 19,000 mph escape velocity of earth, with some propellant ejected outward for steering. A small armature radius, but disproportionately high tangential velocity is required for very high centrifugal force, the inertial reaction to centripetal force pulling you to the center of rotation, rockets close to the hub but without melting or other consequences. So the equation F = m x v^2 / R, for centripetal force inward for circular motion (the inertial reaction force outward is called the centrifugal force) is applied. So the velocity of the rockets is more important than the radius by the square, and as the inertial force is increased significantly, graviton flux can increase causing the space ship to tap into higher graviton relativistic mass values, and therefore more mass-flux or momentum, for what Woodward recently verified is potential “star gate travel” in a direction perpendicular to the oscillating circular plane or upward (hyper-torque-induced precession or gyroscopic-precession) , and increased linear inertia effects cause the space ship to further achieve relativistic speeds for more of a graviton-push, tapping into greater relativistic mass-flux and near and maybe at and/or greater-than speed-of-light speeds with very little rocket propellant compared to more conventional rockets, and therefore the highest possible energy conversion ratio necessary for deep-space travel where extra fuel would otherwise not be possible. Because very high g-forces can kill you, anti-inertial effects are possible with the hub revolving in the direction of star ship travel at similar but reduced speeds within human g-force tolerance, then “tack” in a perpendicular direction with the same counter-revolution, then forward again, and so on, just like a sailing ship tacking across the ocean. However, more research needs to be done on anti-gravity or the repulsive force of gravity, under conditions where dark matter or anti-matter equivalence to known mass cause repulsion like two like charges with electro-magnetism. Most observable mass is for now attractive to each other. Anti-inertia is possible if dark matter can be fabricated, understood and proven when observing severe space-time warping when two black holes are near each other. In the lab, a laser beam-splitter, causing the light to extend outward in perpendicular directions, through masses oscillating at high frequencies, then inward so the disturbed light waves overlap or reinforce each other with an interference pattern where gravity waves (graviton-gravity-wave “wave-particle duality”, with light matter with attractive forces toward each other, but with the addition of repulsive forces when entering a singularity event horizon).
Interferometer that detects and measures gravity waves. Can multiple transverse wave pairs with each pair overlapping each other modulate and re-modulate, for humans converted into light, living peacefully without matter-anti-matter chaos/collisions with pre-manufactured “intelligent design” to avoid in some cases being converted back into mass, and create a “Matrix” new-universe soft-to-light-ware simulation? If God doesn’t think He’s a doctor, do mathematicians, physicists, and computer scientists think they’re gods trying to replicate God’s perceived intelligent design, for what Mathematical Gnostics may call a universe that is already God’s simulation?
This can better be understood, and Einstein’s unified field theory verified, where all four forces (gravity, electro-magnetic, nuclear weak, nuclear strong) are thought to be the same at the Big Bang super-high energy, super-small but super-dense mass and infinitesimal zero-dimension-singularity universe origin. The exception was the electro-weak theory, discovered in 1983 when I was a sophomore physics major at the University of California, Irvine. General relativistic effects so high there is no ability to see anything out of a universe with no size, until quickly expanding into a universe that maybe infinite in size, but maybe finite because of the ever-so-slight warping of space-time with even a super-low-density-universe where a space ship that tries to leave the earth in only an opposing direction will eventually return to earth no matter what, a “leaf petal” effect. Energy gives way to mass, and mass gives way to energy, with evidence of pre-human intelligent design, with the possibility of humans being de-materialized with super-high energy x-ray or gamma-ray lasers (created with Rydberg excimer matter clusters, excited atoms, short lifetime?), much like the the magnetic history that is in neurons in your brain, electron flow for “it’s on, or off” semi-conductor-like digital or other varying (10-based, 16-based) number systems, truth-table gate digital logic, responsible for motor skills and other information processing (for many years, chips in the brain allow people to surf TV stations, move and feel objects and detect different pressures, etc.), mapped, and encoded into a light wave (amplitude/frequency/phase modulated), possibly self-changing like my PandaBusters.com “software that writes new software” electro-magnetic history and complimentary-then-supplementary photon flow, getting re-defined by a second E-M-photon wave, as man creates his own intelligent design, to remain as light where there is peace and no matter-anti-matter Orwellian double-think conundrums, the “war is peace” perpetual conflict. But the anti-gravity, anti-inertia effects that could be exploited for linear low-Mach-force counter-inertia, that will prevent humans from being ripped-apart, might be understood and perfected. In Einstein’s day, instrumentation was inferior to what we have now, as we can better measure gravity, predict-and-measure anti-gravity waves, with more sensitive instrumentation. Resolution is highest for one-half-wave-length aperture diameters (like with a camera, microscope, etc.), so for x-rays and even gamma rays, we have crystals that allow only tiny wavelengths to enter, small bias-current on detector, to allow high signal-to-noise-ratio data to be amplified and digitally filtered with increasing transistor densities, in series with increasing wattage and better high-volume filtration, so the signal quality is good and better understood. This also applies to low energy, low frequency large wavelength gravity waves at lesser speeds for space ship. Eventually, the internal hub can allow gravitons to enter and pass through to avoid high inertia necessary for the outside of space ship, but with apertures that allow anti-gravitons to enter for anti-inertia, for a safe ride for all creatures to travel the heavens, and populate the many earth-like planets and Stanley Kubrick centrifugal space stations, to simulate gravity, as 50 years of studies on weightlessness on the body proves gravity is necessary to avoid long-term muscle fatigue.
“The more you don’t know about what you know, the more you know!”